# Bayesian lstm keras

In this notebook, we try to predict the positive label 1 or negative label 0 sentiment of the sentence. Sentiment analysis is very useful in many areas. For example, it can be used for internet conversations moderation. Also, it is possible to predict ratings that users can assign to a certain product food, household appliances, hotels, films, etc based on the reviews.

We will use pandas, numpy for data manipulation, nltk for natural language processing, matplotlib, seaborn and plotly for data visualization, sklearn and keras for learning the models. First, we need to load the dataset from 3 separate files and concatenate them into 1 dataframe.

You can find film reviews using the IMDB service, reviews about different local services using Yelp, and reviews about different goods using Amazon. The text of the reviews we insert in the Sentence column and the label with positive or negative sentiment in the Sentiment column. In the next 2 cells, we examine the shape of our dataset and check if there are some missing values. We can see that there aren't missing values because the shape of the dataset after removing missing values equals the shape of the dataset before this procedure.

Next, we look at the length of all reviews in the Sentence column and measure some interesting statistics. Note, that the average length of the review is 72 symbol, but very often it can reach symbols. Also, we have some reviews with more than symbols. It seems, that there are some very short reviews because the shortest sentence has only 7 symbols and also the standard deviation and the mean points on this.

Let's also build a histogram with the distribution of the length of the reviews. We can see that most of the reviews have a length between 1 and 50 symbols. There are many reviews in the symbols range. Almost all reviews have a length of fewer than symbols. We can check whether there is any correlation between the length of the review and the sentiment label. On the 2 graphs below we demonstrate that there are no significant correlations between these variables.

Let's also visualize the wordclouds for sentences with positive and negative sentiment.

### Search Results

You can see that for positive sentiment there are such words as "good", "well", "nice", "better", "best", "excellent", "wonderful" and so on. For the negative sentiment we can see words "bad", "disappointed", "worst", "poor" etc. Now we would like to examine the distributions of sentiments. From the histogram below we can see that the dataset is balanced, which is very good in terms of algorithms training.

There are approximately examples in both "0" and "1" categories. Before we feed our data to the learning algorithms we need to preprocess it.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.

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The language model experiment extends wojzaremba's lua code. Keras now supports dropout in RNNs following the implementation above. A simplified example of the sentiment analysis experiment using the latest keras implementation is given in here. In the setting of Zaremba et al.

Oppo f15 featuresThe only changes I've made to the setting of Zaremba et al. All other hypers being identical to Zaremba et al. Single model validation perplexity is improved from Zaremba et al. Test perplexity is reduced from Evaluating the model with MC dropout with samples, test perplexity is further reduced to I updated the code with the experiments used in the arXiv paper revision from 25 May version 3. In the updated code restriction 3 above smaller network size was removed, following a Lua update that solved a memory leak.

Validation perplexity is reduced from In the original script, word embedding dropout was erroneously sampled anew for each word token ie the word token masks were not tied in the LM experiment, unlike the sentiment analysis experiment. I fixed the code and re-ran the experiments with Variational untied weights large LSTMgiving a small improvement in perplexity:. The improvement is rather small because the sequence length in the LM exps is This means that most sequences will have unique words ie a word would not appear multiple times in the sequencehence having the masks untied in such sequences is the same as having the masks tied.

Note that in longer sequences such as in the sentiment analysis exps with sequence length of most sequences will have common words such as stop words appearing multiple times in the sequence. Skip to content. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.

Sign up. Lua Python. Lua Branch: master. Find file.

Numpy fillSign in Sign up. Go back. Launching Xcode If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. Latest commit. Latest commit 3e65a11 Jan 28, Update 3 July 6 : I updated the code with the experiments used in the arXiv paper revision from 25 May version 3. I fixed the code and re-ran the experiments with Variational untied weights large LSTMgiving a small improvement in perplexity: Validation set perplexity: You signed in with another tab or window.

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I want to estimate epistemic uncertainty of my model. So I converted all layers into tensorflow probability layers. The model gives no errors back, but it also not learning anything. The model has two outputs and the losses of both outputs do not change at all. On the other hand, the overall loss of the model is shrinking, but seems not be related to the other losses at all, which I cant explain. Any help would be appreciated. The overall loss starts atwhereas the two outputs losses are at around 1,3.

## Sentiment Analysis with Naive Bayes and LSTM

It is very strange to me. The overall loss might already include the prior loss kl sampled weights priorso could be doubke counted?

I'm not sure how Keras handles this. Learn more. Bayesian Model does not learn with tensorflow probability and keras Ask Question. Asked 6 months ago.

Active 6 months ago. Viewed times. DenseFlipout self. AlexVilla AlexVilla 1 1 silver badge 10 10 bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. Brian Patton Brian Patton 1 1 silver badge 4 4 bronze badges.

I found this loss function on the tensorflow website. I states that the kl term is critical and should only be updated once per epoch. I am not quit sure how to accomplish this by now. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown.In this way, random variables can be involved in complex deterministic operations containing deep neural networks, math operations and other libraries compatible with TensorFlow such as Keras.

Bayesian deep learning or deep probabilistic programming embraces the idea of employing deep neural networks within a probabilistic model in order to capture complex non-linear dependencies between variables.

This can be done by combining InferPy with tf. Let us start by showing how a non-linear PCA. In this case, the parameters of the decoder neural network i. These parameters are treated as model parameters and not exposed to the user.

In consequence, we can not be Bayesian about them by defining specific prior distributions. Alternatively, we could use Keras layers by simply defining an alternative decoder function as follows. InferPy allows the definition of Bayesian NN using the same dense variational layers that are available in tfp. DenseLocalReparameterization: Densely-connected layer class with local reparameterization estimator. The weights of these layers are drawn from distributions whose posteriors are calculated using variational inference.

For more details, check the official tfp documentation. For its usage, we simply need to include them in an InferPy Sequential model inf. Sequential as follows. Note that this model differs from the one provided by Keras. A more detailed example with Bayesian layers is given here. Normal tf. Parameter tf. Sequential [ tf. DenseReparameterization: Densely-connected layer class with reparameterization estimator. Sequential [ tfp. Read the Docs v: latest Versions master latest 1.Compared to more simpler hyperparameter search methods like grid search and random search, Bayesian optimization is built upon Bayesian inference and Gaussian process with an attempts to find the maximum value of an unknown function as few iterations as possible.

It is particularly suited for optimization of high-cost functions like hyperparameter search for deep learning model, or other situations where the balance between exploration and exploitation is important. The Bayesian Optimization package we are going to use is BayesianOptimizationwhich can be installed with the following command.

**Text Classification with TensorFlow Keras - NLP Using Embedding and LSTM Recurrent Neural Networks**

The BayesianOptimization object will work out of the box without much tuning needed. The constructor takes the function to be optimized as well as the boundaries of hyperparameters to search. The main method you should be aware of is maximizewhich does exactly what you think it does, maximizing the evaluation accuracy given the hyperparameters.

Here are many parameters you can pass to maximizenonetheless, the most important ones are:. After searching for 4 times, the model build with the found hyperparameters achieves an evaluation accuracy of For example, we want to search for the number of the neuron of a dense layer from a list of options. To apply Bayesian optimization, it is necessary to explicitly convert the input parameters to discrete ones before constructing the model. The dense layers neurons will be mapped to 3 unique discrete values,and before constructing to the model.

Everything Blog posts Pages. Home About Me Blog Support. Let's create a helper function first which builds the model with various parameters.

Returns: a Keras model """ Reset the tensorflow backend session. Current rating: 4.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.

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Stardew valley switch co op split screenUsing Bayesian Optimization to optimize hyper parameter in Keras-made neural network model. Bayesian Optimization in the program is run by GpyOpt library. This is a Python library for Bayesian Optimization.

Bayesian Optimization assumes the equation between input and output as black box and tries to acquire distribution of the output by exploring and observing various inputs and outputs.

Bayesian Optimization improves distribution assumption by sampling the inputs and outputs to get close to the actual distribution in exploitable time. See below for more. Skip to content. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Sign up. Jupyter Notebook Python.

Jupyter Notebook Branch: master. Find file. Sign in Sign up. Go back. Launching Xcode If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. Latest commit. Latest commit 5dc6f4d Mar 20, You signed in with another tab or window.

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Jun 7, Mar 20, By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. Cross Validated is a question and answer site for people interested in statistics, machine learning, data analysis, data mining, and data visualization. It only takes a minute to sign up. I have a very simple toy recurrent neural network implemented in keras which, given an input of N integers will return their mean value.

I would like to be able to modify this to a bayesian neural network with either pymc3 or edward. I have read through blog posts from autograd, pymc3 and edward [1,2,3] but all seem geared to classification problems.

From a pure implementation perspective, it should be straightforward: take your model code, replace every trainable Variable creation with ed. The problem is that variational training of RNNs, since based on sampling, is quite hard. The sampling noise will be of no fun as soon as it is amplified by the recurrent net's dynamics. To my knowledge, there is currently no "gold standard" on how to do this in general. The starting point is probably Alex Graves's paper [1]; some recent work has been done by Yarin Gal [2], where dropout is interpreted as variational inference.

It will give you a predictive distribution by integrating out the dropout noise. The latter one will probably be the easiest to get to work, but I have no practical experience myself.

Meanwhile, other papers related to Bayesian RNNs have been published. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top.

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